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发表于 2004-3-2 12:15  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
TCP/IP?ù???é??

TCP/IP?ù???é??
????????×??????è?¨ ????

??????????????Internet,?????¨???á·???IP Address??????,?ò???????????????ù????IP Address,??????A Class?ò??B Class,?????±?ò???á????????Sub Net,????????Internet??IP Address±???×????ó??,???°???ò???óInternet??,IP Address?????ú???ú????,???ù?ê????IP Address???°???÷±???,???????????ê????IP Address????Internet????,?????????????????ê????????C CLass??IP Address,???????à?????è??????,?????±±??è????????Subnet,???????????÷Subnet?????í?°??????????

????1??Subnet Mask???é??

?????????è?¨???????·?????????è±????????÷?ú??PC??Router?????è???è?¨IP Address,???ú????IP Address?????ù????NetMask,????NetMask?÷????????????IP Address??????????NetworkNumber,????????IP Address??Net Mask×÷AND??????Network Number,?????ù???? ????

????IP Address

????192.10.10.611000000.00001010.00001010.00000110

????????NetMask

????255.255.255.011111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

????????AND

????Network Number

????192.10.10.011000000.00001010.00001010.00000000

????????NetMask???ù?????¤?è??,?????ù??

????????Class IP Address ·??§ Net Mask

????????A??1.0.0.0-126.255.255.255255.0.0.0

????????B??128.0.0.0-191.255.255.255255.255.0.0

????????C??192.0.0.0-223.255.255.255255.255.255.0

???????????¤?è??Net Mask??????255????,??????Subnet Mask?±??????±??????¨??255???????ê????×éC Class????203.67.10.0-203.67.10.255NetMask255.255.255.0,203.67.10.0????Network Number(??IP Address??Netmask×÷AND),??203.67.10.255??Broadcast??IP Address,?ù???????????????????,????????????203.67.10.1--203.67.10.254??254??IP Address,??????255.255.255.0×÷NetMask???á??,???ù??Subnet Msk????????×éC Class·?????×éNetwork Number,??????NEtMask×÷????,??????????×éC CLass·???2??Network Number??NetMask?è?¨??255.255.255.192,??????????×éC CLass·???8×éNetwork Number?òNetMask????255.255.255.224,??????÷á????,??????????Network Number????IP Address??NetMask×÷AND??????,??????NetMask????????±í??·¨??????1???á±???,????0??????

????????192.10.10.193--11000000.00001010.00001010.10000001

????????255.255.255.0--11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

????????--------------------------------------------------------------

????????192.10.10.0--11000000.00001010.00001010.00000000

????????????????255.255.255.0??Net Mask???á??,Network Number??192.10.10.0,????????255.255.255.224×÷Net Mask?á??±????ù????????

????192.10.10.193--11000000.00001010.00001010.10000000 ????

????255.255.255.224--11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000 ????

????-------------------------------------------------------------- ????

????192.10.10.192--11000000.00001010.00001010.10000000 ????

???????±Network Number±?????192.10.10.192,??±???Subnet?????????????¨?ù??????NetMask,255.255.255.224????????±í??·¨??11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000,±???????×?áá??×é,11100000±???224,??????Bit??±í??2??3??·?±???8??Network Number

????????NetMask??????±í??·¨??·?????Network

????????255.255.255.011111111.11111111.11111111.000000001

????????255.255.255.128 ????

????11111111.11111111.11111111.100000002

????????255.255.255.192

????????11111111.11111111.11111111.110000004

????????255.255.255.224

????????11111111.11111111.11111111.111000008

????????255.255.255.240

????????11111111.11111111.11111111.1111000016

????????255.255.255.248 ????

????11111111.11111111.11111111.1111100032

????????255.255.255.252

????????11111111.11111111.11111111.1111110064 ????

????????????255.255.255.224??C??Class203.67.10.0·???8×éNet work Number,?÷??Network Number?°??Broadcast IP Address?°????????IP Address?ò??Network Number Broadcast????????IP Address ????

?????¨1??203.67.10.0--203.67.10.31

????????203.67.10.1--203.67.10.30

?????????¨2??203.67.10.32--203.67.10.63 ????

????203.67.10.33--203.67.10.62

?????????¨3??203.67.10.64--203.67.10.95

????????203.67.10.65--203.67.10.94

?????????¨4??203.67.10.96--203.67.10.127

????????203.67.10.97--203.67.10.126

?????????¨5??203.67.10.128--203.67.10.159

????????203.67.10.129--203.67.10.158

?????????¨6??203.67.10.160--203.67.10.191

????????203.67.10.161--203.67.10.190

?????????¨7??203.67.10.192--203.67.10.223

????????203.67.10.193--203.67.10.222 ????

?????¨8??203.67.10.224--203.67.10.255 ????????203.67.10.225--203.67.10.254

???????????é?¤?ù??????IP Address??·?????±í?ù??

????????203.67.10.115--11001011.01000011.00001010.01110011 ????

????255.255.255.224--11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000

????--------------------------------------------------------------

????203.67.10.96--11001011.01000011.00001010.01100000

????203.67.10.55--11001011.01000011.00001010.00110111

????255.255.255.224--11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000

????--------------------------------------------------------------

????203.67.10.32--11001011.01000011.00001010.00100000

??????????NetMask?ù·?????NetworkNumber??×?????????·?·¨×?????????????

????2??Subnet??????

????????Subnet??????????????×éC Class???è??????Network Number??????,??????????IP Address????????????,?ò??????Subnet·???????????IP Address?á±???,Subnet?¨??????????×????????¨±±,??·????????¨??,????????????Router????,???±????Internet,?????ê??????×éC Class IP Address,??Router???è??????Network,?ù?????±??±?????????Subnet,?±????°ì??????????Remote Bridge????,??±?????????Subnet??????,??????????????,?ù?????????é?????????·?????????°IP Address??????

????????TCP/IP???é???ò?é

????TCP/IP?¨???????????é/???????é?????????????¨?????é???ü??·????????????ù???¨???è±??????????????÷?ú???í?????÷?ú???????????ù?????????°????·?????TCP/IP??INTERNET???ù?????é???????????????????ò°ü???°?·??±ê×?·?·¨???????????????????????ó???í????????????·???TCP??IP????????·???????????????±???·?????????????????????????TCP??·???????????·???????????·?????????????????TCP??·?????IP?ó??·???·???????????????????????TCP?í??°ü??????·????é????????°?·????°?????ò???????????????é????·??????í??TCP???á???ó??·????ò????TCP/IP??INTERNET???????????????í?????????????????????????í??????,?÷?????????????ú?÷????±??????·,?????·??×????í???·.???í???·??????

????????:

?????¨1?????í???·???¤??,???????????í??????????????·?,???í????????,???í???·??????.

?????¨2???????à???????????????????????????à???????í???·.

???????????????¨??,?????????í???????????????¨??.

?????????????????????é???????é???????????¨?????ú???????????????¤?????¨??±ê×???TCP/IP???????????????í?à???é?????????????????????????ü?ú±í???????é???????ò????TCP??IP?????????????ù±????é??????

??????×°???????ú-??TCP/IP?í???á????????°ü?¨TCP??IP???°TCP/IP???é???????ü???é???¤?????¨????±????ü°ü?¨???????????????????ò??FTP(???????????é)???ü???í???§???ü????????????????????????

????TCP/IP?????ú????×??ú????????????????(ARPA)???????????????ê?ú?????????????????????????ò???????????????????????????é???????????????ú????????????????Internet?¨????????????????ARPAnet×?????TCP/IP??????????????????Internet×??????????????ú??????????????????

????????TCP/IP?????????????ò???????ü???í????????????????Internet?ò×é?????????????????????????¨Intranet?????????????????????????¨??????-×??·???÷?òIP?·???÷???è±??????í???????????????·???÷?????¨?????????????????í????????????????°ü???????ú????????????TCP/IP?????????????????¨??????????????????×?IP°ü?¨IPpacket???òIP????±¨(IP datagrams)????????????--??????TCP/IP?í?????????¨?????????????????ú?????ü?????ú?°???±???????????ù?????????ü???????·???÷???ù±????????????á?????????÷·??????????????????ó???????????????????±?è???·??????48?????????????·???ù???????????????????è???·??????32????IP???·?????????ü????????????????±í??????128.10.2.3?????¨?????????????ú??IP???·???????????????òInternet????±????????ú?????????????????????í???????????¨?????ú???ù?ò?????????ú·?????????

????TCP/IP?á????????·?°???????????????????????????·??????????í???????¨?????ú???????ù????????????????????·?°?°ü?¨?í?à??·?????TCP/IP???é???????????±?ò????????????????????·?????TCP/IP???é????×??ù±??????é-IP???é???????????????????????????????????????????????·??????????????????±¨??A?÷?ú??B?÷?ú???????????·?????°???????????·???÷?ê?????????????????????¨hop????

????TCP???????ü?????????ü???í?????????????÷?ú???????????ò?à???????????÷??TCP???????÷·?????????×?TCP???????¨TCP segments??????????IP???é?????????????ó?à???é??????????TCP??????×°??????IP????±¨??????·??????????è?????°??TCP??°???????·????à??????±¨????IP????±¨?ò???????????????÷?ú?????????÷??×????÷?????í???????à????????IP??????±??¤??????????±¨?????ò?à??????TCP?á????????×°??TCP?????????????????????????????÷??FTP??Telnet????????·????÷??????*TCP??TCP/IP???????ò??

?????í??????????TCP/IP???é???????±?????§????±¨???é(UDP)???ü??TCP?à????±?TCP?????í?à??TCP????????*?????é???ò???ü???í?ó?ì?é???????·????±??¤?????ê????????????????UDP???????°????*?±?????é???ò???ü????±??¤????±¨?????????ò??·??????ò?à????????????±??¤?ü????·???????????????????*?????ó???ò???????ò±????????ü?????í?àTCP/IP?¤?????±?á????SNMP(?ò?????????í???é)????????????UDP???é????????×???????

???????üTCP/IP???é??TCP/IP???????¤×÷?????ó???????ù??·???×?????×÷???????????·×??????é(ARP)??IP???·×????????í???????·???????????·??????????????·??ò???·×??????é(RARP)×??à·????¤×÷?????????í???????·×?????IP???·??????????±¨?????é(ICMP)?ò???????§???????é???ü????IP?ê??IP????±¨???????±?????????????í?ó???????????????????????????·???÷?????ò?°·???????IP????±¨???ü???á????ICMP??????·????????????????????? ????

????????TCP/IP???????????á??????

?????????????è???????????????????á???±????????ISO/OSI?¨?ú??±ê×???×é??/??·??????????????????????????????????ú±í???¨????????????????×??????????í?????ü?ú±í×?????????×????????í?é?????????°?????????????????????????????·?????ü?¨???????????¨?á??·?????×???????????????????????×?????????·????????????ò??????

????TCP/IP????ISO/OSI?????????????±?????????????????????????ò???÷???????????¨???ü?¨??????????TCP/IP???é?????????????????????????????á???????í????????TCP/IP???é?ù?è???????????ò??°ü?????ù?±????×??????????¨?±???ü????????±ê×?????????(???è???í????????????)????????????TCP/IP?í???¨??°????????????????????ò????????TCP/IP??????????????×????????????ò????????????????(????×?????????TCP/IP?¤×÷??????·?·¨???????????????ò?????ì?????????????÷????????±?????TCP/IP???é?ù??????????)??????????TCP/IP?????????????????ù°??????????????????±???*** TTP(????±????????é)??Web?????÷????????Internet????Web·????÷??????????HTML?????±?ù·??ú???é????????????Web·????÷???é???·???????÷????????±??é?ó???????×????(socket)???????í????????????Web?????ü?¨???ò?×?????ò?×????????HTTPGET?ü?????òWeb·????÷·??????????????????×?????í??????TCP???é?òWeb·????÷·???°ü??GET?ü????×????÷?????÷??TCP??????·????????÷??????????IP???é???????é????????×?????????±¨??·?????Web·????÷??????

?????????????÷??·????÷??--?????????í???????????ú??(??°??é??????)??????±¨???????????????í???????????±??????·????÷?ù????????????×?????????±??????????????·??±?????×°???????ùWeb·????÷?¨????×??????×???????????????÷???????????é?????????????÷?????????÷??·????÷???????????????????????×?????????í?????????????§????°????????????×??·??ú???÷???????????????ü???ì????????????????·ì?????????ó??

???????????? ????

????????TCP/IP???í?à?????????????????????????ü????????

????1??TCP/IP????×?????°??????????í???????????????????????????é??TCP/IP???????????????????????é???????????????????·???÷???????????????í???????·??????IP???·??????

????2??TCP/IP?????à???????á???????á?????ú?¨???????????é????????TCP??UDP?ò???????????ò?á??????????????????·??????????è??IP??????????°ü??IP????????????°ü?????????????????????·????????

????3????Internet?÷?ú????????????×??????????ò???????????¨???÷?ú??TCP/IP????????????????·?????TCP/IP???é????????????????????????????????TCP/IP???é????????????×?????????????????

??×??????í??





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